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Ghost Kitchens in Singapore: How Are They Different From Cloud & Virtual Kitchens?

Ghost kitchens have been gaining popularity in Singapore over the past few years. These kitchens are commercial cooking facilities that are used for delivery-only restaurants, allowing businesses to operate without the overhead costs of a traditional brick-and-mortar restaurant. The rise of food delivery platforms such as GrabFood, Foodpanda, and Deliveroo has contributed to the growth of ghost kitchens in Singapore, as these platforms provide a convenient way for customers to order food from these virtual restaurants.

In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of food delivery services, further driving demand for ghost kitchens. As a result, many traditional restaurant operators and food entrepreneurs have started to embrace the ghost kitchen model to launch new food concepts or expand their existing businesses. The market for ghost kitchens in Singapore is expected to continue to grow in the coming years, driven by the increasing demand for food delivery services and the potential cost savings for businesses.

Ghost kitchens in Singapore

What Are Ghost Kitchens?

Ghost kitchens are typically located in non-traditional spaces, such as industrial parks or commercial kitchens, and are equipped with the necessary cooking equipment, storage, and packaging supplies for preparing and delivering meals. Such kitchens have become increasingly popular in recent years due to the rise of online food delivery platforms and the changing consumer habits that prioritize convenience and speed.

In much simpler words, in a ghost kitchen model, an entity provides chefs and cooking facilities, and the business owner or entrepreneur is only responsible for marketing and promoting their food concept. The entity would typically provide the necessary kitchen equipment, staff, and ingredients based on the recipes and menu items provided by the business owner. This allows the business owner to focus on building their brand, creating marketing campaigns, and generating customer demand, while leaving the cooking and operational aspects to the ghost kitchen entity. By outsourcing the cooking and operational components, business owners can potentially save on expenses such as staffing and equipment, while also benefiting from the expertise and experience of professional chefs. Overall, this model can be attractive for those looking to enter the food industry with a focus on branding and marketing, without the need for significant investments in equipment and staffing.

Fun fact, recently ghost kitchens are strongly appealing to entrepreneurs and start-up food brands, as they offer a lower barrier to entry compared to traditional ones!

Are Ghost Kitchens, Virtual Kitchens and Cloud Kitchens the Same Thing?

The terms ghost kitchen, virtual kitchen, and cloud kitchen are often used interchangeably, but they do have some key differences:

  • Cloud Kitchen: Generally speaking, a cloud kitchen is a central kitchen facility where food is prepared, cooked, and packaged for delivery. It may be owned by a single restaurant or by a third-party provider that rents out kitchen space to multiple food businesses. Customers can order food from a cloud kitchen through online platforms, such as food delivery apps, and the food is delivered directly to their homes or workplaces.
  • Ghost Kitchen: A ghost kitchen is similar to a cloud kitchen, but it may also refer to a kitchen facility that is set up in an existing restaurant or other commercial kitchen that is not being used to serve dine-in customers. Ghost kitchens are often used by restaurant owners to expand their delivery and takeout offerings without the need to invest in additional real estate.
  • Virtual Kitchen: A virtual kitchen is a slightly different concept. It refers to a food business that operates exclusively through online ordering and delivery, without any physical storefront or dining space. Virtual kitchens may operate out of a cloud kitchen or a ghost kitchen, or they may have their own dedicated kitchen space. The key difference is that a virtual kitchen is a business that exists entirely in the digital realm. 

Should You Invest in a Ghost Kitchen?

There are several benefits of ghost kitchens that make them an attractive option for food service operators, including:

1. Reduced Overhead Costs

Investing in a ghost kitchen can be a smart business decision due to the reduced overhead costs compared to traditional brick-and-mortar restaurants. By eliminating the need for a physical dining space, ghost kitchens can save on expenses such as rent, utilities, and staffing. This allows businesses to allocate more resources towards food quality and marketing efforts, which can ultimately drive customer satisfaction and increase profitability. Additionally, the rise of food delivery platforms and the increasing demand for delivery-only restaurants make ghost kitchens a potentially lucrative investment opportunity. However, it is important to carefully consider factors such as location, market demand, and competition before making an investment decision.

2. Efficient Operations

Ghost kitchens typically have a smaller footprint and streamlined operations, which can result in faster preparation and delivery times for customers. In addition, ghost kitchens can leverage data analytics and technology to optimize menu offerings and inventory management. By utilizing these tools, businesses can reduce waste, improve margins, and better understand customer preferences. Overall, the efficient operations of ghost kitchens can lead to higher productivity and profitability, making it an attractive investment option for those looking to enter the food industry.

3. Flexibility

Unlike traditional restaurants, ghost kitchens can easily pivot their menus and concepts without the need for costly renovations or rebranding efforts. This allows businesses to quickly adapt to changing market trends and customer demands, which can be crucial for long-term success. In addition, ghost kitchens can also offer flexibility in terms of location, as they can be set up in areas with lower rent and operational costs. This can be particularly beneficial for businesses looking to expand their reach or test out new markets. Ultimately, the flexibility offered by ghost kitchens can provide businesses with greater agility and scalability, making it a viable investment option for those looking to enter the food industry.

4. Lower Risk

As mentioned earlier, ghost kitchens can significantly reduce overhead costs and offer greater flexibility, which can result in lower financial risk for investors. Additionally, the rising popularity of food delivery platforms and the increasing demand for delivery-only restaurants can also provide a more stable customer base for ghost kitchens. This, coupled with the ability to quickly pivot menus and concepts, can help mitigate the risks associated with changing market trends and consumer preferences. Overall, the lower risk associated with ghost kitchens can make it an attractive investment option for those looking to enter the food industry with a potentially lower financial barrier to entry.

5. Data-Driven Decision-Making

Ghost kitchens can leverage technology and data analytics to better understand customer preferences, optimize menu offerings, and improve operational efficiency. By tracking and analyzing customer behaviour and feedback, businesses can gain valuable insights that can inform menu development and marketing strategies. Additionally, data analytics can also help businesses manage inventory and reduce waste, ultimately leading to cost savings and increased profitability. The ability to make data-driven decisions can provide a competitive edge in the food industry, making ghost kitchens an attractive investment option for those looking to enter the market.

Ghost kitchens in Singapore

How Much Investment Does a Ghost Kitchen Require in Singapore?

The amount of investment required for a ghost kitchen in Singapore can vary widely depending on several factors, including the size of the operation, location, equipment, and branding/marketing. Here are some general guidelines for the types of costs involved:

  • Rent: Depending on the location, rent for a ghost kitchen space can range from SGD 3,000 to SGD 10,000 per month or more.
  • Kitchen Equipment: The cost of kitchen equipment can vary depending on the type and quality of the equipment needed. For a fully equipped kitchen, including ovens, fryers, refrigeration, and packaging equipment, the cost can range from SGD 30,000 to SGD 100,000 or more.
  • Marketing/Branding: Depending on the level of branding and marketing desired, costs can vary widely. This can include website development, social media management, and paid advertising. A marketing budget of SGD 5,000 to SGD 10,000 per month is common.
  • Staffing: Depending on the size of the operation, staffing costs can range from SGD 3,000 to SGD 10,000 per month or more. 
  • Other Costs: Other costs to consider include utilities, permits and licenses, insurance, and supplies such as food ingredients and packaging.

The total investment required for a ghost kitchen in Singapore can range from SGD 50,000 to SGD 200,000 or more depending on the factors mentioned above.

How Do Ghost Kitchens Work? How to Set One Up in Singapore?

Ghost kitchens, also known as virtual kitchens, are commercial cooking facilities that cater exclusively to food delivery and takeaway orders. These kitchens do not have any dine-in or storefront facilities and operate entirely online. In this guide, we will cover the steps to set up a ghost kitchen in Singapore.

Step 1: Choose a Location

The first step in setting up a ghost kitchen is choosing the location. Look for a commercial space that is zoned for food service and meets your specific needs. You may want to consider factors such as rent, size, accessibility, and proximity to your target customers.

Step 2: Obtain Licenses and Permits

To operate a ghost kitchen in Singapore, you will need to obtain a food service license from the National Environment Agency (NEA). You will also need to comply with the regulations set forth by the NEA, such as food hygiene and safety standards. Make sure to obtain all necessary permits and licenses before opening your kitchen.

Step 3: Set Up Your Kitchen

Once you have secured your location and licenses, it’s time to set up your kitchen. Determine the equipment and supplies you will need, such as cooking appliances, utensils, and food storage containers. You may also need to hire staff, such as chefs and delivery drivers, depending on the size and scale of your operation.

Step 4: Create a Menu

The success of your ghost kitchen will depend largely on the quality of your menu. Develop a menu that is both appealing and feasible for your kitchen’s capabilities. You may want to consider market research to identify what types of cuisine and dishes are popular in your target market.

Step 5: Choose a Delivery Platform

Ghost kitchens to rely entirely on delivery platforms to reach their customers. Choose a delivery platform that is popular in your area and register your business on the platform. You will need to provide your menu, pricing, and delivery information.

Step 6: Launch and Promote Your Ghost Kitchen

Once your ghost kitchen is set up, it’s time to launch and promote your business digitally. Advertise your menu on your chosen delivery platform, as well as on social media and other relevant channels. Consider offering promotional deals or discounts to attract new customers.

What Are The Different Types of Ghost Kitchens?

There are several different types of ghost kitchens, each with its own unique business model and approach. Here are some of the most common types:

Commissary Kitchens: These are shared kitchens that multiple food businesses can rent out to prepare their food. Commissary kitchens are often used by small-scale food entrepreneurs who do not have the resources to open their own kitchens.

Restaurant Incubators: Restaurant incubators are shared spaces that provide resources and support to new food businesses. They may offer kitchen space, mentorship, and other services to help entrepreneurs launch and grow their businesses.

Delivery-Only Restaurants: These are restaurants that operate without a storefront or dine-in option, and instead focus exclusively on delivery orders. Delivery-only restaurants may operate out of a ghost kitchen or another type of commercial kitchen.

Catering Kitchens: These are kitchens that specialize in catering services, and may offer food preparation, cooking, and delivery services for events and parties.

Are Ghost Kitchens Profitable in Singapore?

Ghost kitchens can be profitable in Singapore, but it ultimately depends on a number of factors. One of the main reasons why ghost kitchens can be profitable in Singapore is that they offer a more cost-effective solution than traditional restaurants. By operating without a storefront or dine-in option, ghost kitchens can save on rent, labour, and overhead costs, making it easier to turn a profit. This is especially important in Singapore, where commercial rental rates can be high and labour costs are increasing.

Another factor that contributes to the profitability of ghost kitchens in Singapore is the growing demand for delivery-only food options. With more people working from home and relying on food delivery services, the market for delivery-only restaurants and virtual kitchens has increased. Ghost kitchens can take advantage of this trend by offering high-quality, unique, and convenient food options that cater to this growing demand.

Moreover, ghost kitchens can also leverage technology to improve efficiency and reduce costs. By using software to optimize the kitchen workflow, automate orders, and track inventory, ghost kitchens can streamline their operations and reduce waste, which can ultimately increase profitability.

Lastly, partnering with food delivery platforms can help ghost kitchens to reach a wider audience and increase revenue. These platforms offer a large customer base and a delivery infrastructure, which can be particularly beneficial for new entrants to the market.


Although it is obvious that ghost kitchens have numerous benefits, are they really here to stay? “The global food delivery industry is anticipated to be valued at US$ 254 billion in the year 2028, rising at a CAGR of 10.9% in the period 2021 to 2028”, according to a recent analysis by Rockville Research. Since delivery is projected to keep expanding faster than dine-in, ghost kitchens remain a smart solution for restaurateurs to future proof their companies.

There will be a demand for ghost kitchens as long as they offer a more affordable option than running a conventional restaurant.

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